Tribal Sub Plan

Terminology :- The concept of drawing up a T.S.P. accounting for all the flows of funds invested in the I.T.D.P. was started from 1975-76. Subsequently, the terms T.S.P. and I.T.D.P. were used inter-changeably and the I.T.D.Ps. were often referred to as T.S.P. Areas.

Procedure for formulating the T.S.P. :- The procedure followed in the State upto 1992-93 for the formulation of the T.S.P. of the State was briefly that the Planning Department used to allocate plan outlays to different administrative departments. The department in turn, used to carve out outlays for T.S.P. as per their own discretion and priorities. The concerned departments were also deciding which of the schemes, programmes and development works were to be taken up from the funds set aside for the T.S.P. There was, therefore, a feeling that the T.S.P. was merely an amalgam of the State Plan Schemes taken up in the tribal areas and emphasis was given mainly on the arithmetical figures of expenditure rather than on identifying schemes really benefiting tribals. There was no attempt to formulate the schemes in consultation with Tribal area project administration. Consequently, adequate investment was not made in the Tribal areas, particularly on the human resource development side. The level of illiteracy and poverty is still much more among the tribals (as compared to the general) population of the State.

Keeping in views the above problems and shortcomings in the formulation of the T.S.P., the State Government took up this issue with the State Planning Board before the commencement of the Eighth Five-Year Plan. The State Planning Board appointed a Sub-Committee in January 1991, under the Chairmanship of Shri D.M.Sukthankar, a member of the Board and former Chief Secretary of the State, to study the question. The Sub Committee submitted its report in June, 1992. According to the recommendations in this report, which was accepted by the State Government, the Planning Department now communicates a plan ceiling to the Tribal Development Department for the formulation of the T.S.P. The responsibility for finalising the T.S.P., within the ceiling so indicated, rests with the Tribal Development Department and not with the Administrative Departments, as was the previous practice. The outlays for different schemes are now to be finally decided by the Tribal Development Department, keeping in view the actual benefits accruing to the tribal people. The schemes are now being scrutinised very carefully by the Tribal Development Department and notional outlays not directly beneficial to the tribals, i.e., outlays on State Transport, High Tension Transmission lines, etc., are not being permitted to be included in the T.S.P. Since this work was given to the Tribal Development Department, the annual outlays under the T.S.P. have been as follows :- (Rs in crore)

Year State plan outlay Budge- table outlay % of budge-table outlay Outlay provi-ded for T.S.P. % of budgetable outlay of T.S.P. Expenditue
1993-94 3804.00 3284.44 86.34 265.00 8.07 266.00
1994-95 4400.00 4000.32 91.92 330.00 8.25 275.00
1995-96 6062.00 5275.80 87.03 412.50 7.82 412.00
1996-97 8284.00 7520.11 90.78 588.58 7.83 535.00
1997-98 8325.00 6282.56 73.88 550.00 8.75 498.00
1998-99 11600.73 6400.00 55.17 561.00 8.77 520.00
99-2000 12161.66 6641.82 54.61 580.59 9.00 467.00
2000- 01 12330.00 5798.00 47.02 525.00 9.00 444.00
2001-02 11720.56 6750.00 57.59 567.00 9.00 366.77
2002-03 11562.00 5704.04 49.33 585.00 10.26 323.42
2003-04 12052.50 7578.38 62.88 555.73 7.33 450.22
2004-05 9665.25 9665.25 100.00 530.04 5.48 376.46
2005-06 11014.03 11014.03 100.00 990.00 8.99 928.53
2006-07 14829.00 14829.00 100.00 1389.00 9.37 1323.04
2007-08 20200.00 20200.00 100.00 1798.00 8.90 1658.88
2008-09 25000.00 25000.00 100.00 1941.50 7.77 2027.42
2009-10 26000.00 26000.00 100.00 2314.00 8.90 2130.01
2010-11 37917.00 37917.00 100.00 3374.35 8.90 2323.15
2011-12 41000.00 41000.00 100.00 3693.50 9.01 3106.00
2012-13 45000.00 45000.00 100.00 4005.00 8.9 3401.00
2013-14 49000.00 49000.00 100 4360.48 8.9 3979.42(Expected)
2014-15 51222.54 51222.54 100 4814.92 9.40 --

Area Population

The area under the Tribal Sub Plan in Maharashtra is 50,757 sq. kms., as against the total Geographical area of 3,07,713 sq. kms. of the State. This works out to about 16.5 percent of the geographical area of the State. The comparative figures of the State's population and the tribal population in the last four-decal censuses are given below: -

Census Year State's Total Population (lakh) Tribal Population (lakh) Percentage
1971 504.12 38.41 7.62
1981 627.84 57.72 9.19
1991 789.37 73.18 9.27
2001 968.79 85.77 8.85
2011 1123.74 105.10 9.35

The above mentioned population figures clearly show that during the decade 1999-2001, the tribal population, as a percentage of the total population of the State, is more or less constant at around 9 %. The main tribes in Maharashtra are the Bhils, the Gonds, the Mahadeo Kolis, the Pawras, the Thakurs and the Varlis. There are three tribes Viz., the Kolams (Yavatmal District), the Katkaris (mainly in Thane and Raigad Districts) and the Madia Gonds (Gadchiroli District), which have been notified as Primitive Tribes by the Government of India.

There are 35 Districts in the State and the tribal population is largely concentrated in the western hilly Districts of Dhule, Nandurbar, Jalgaon, Nashik and Thane (Sahyadri Region).

And the eastern forest Districts of Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Bhandara, Gondia, Nagpur, Amravati and Yavatmal (Gondwana Region). As directed by the Government of India, in 1975-76 the villages where more than 50 Percent of the population was tribal, were constituted into Integrated Tribal Development Projects (I.T.D.Ps.). There were 16 such Government of India approved I.T.D.Ps. Subsequently, the villages where the tribal population was only marginally less than 50 Percent were also constituted into additional I.T.D.Ps. And these were called the Additional Tribal Sub Plan (ATSP) Blocks/Projects. There were 4 such State Government approved ATSP projects. Later taking into consideration the scattered population of tribals in other areas and the educational institutions being run there, I.T.D.Ps. were also sanctioned for Mumbai, Aurangabad and Akola. Consequently, making a total of 39 I.T.D.Ps. In the meantime, the Government of India in recognition of the fact that there were some small concentrations of tribal population just outside the I.T.D.Ps, directed that in a group of villages having a population of about 10,000, if more than 50 Percent were tribals, the villages should be brought under the Modified Area Development Approach (MADA). Similarly, if two or three villages having a total population of 5,000 if more than 50 Percent were tribals, the same should be constituted into a clusters/Mini-MADA. In Maharashtra, there are 43 MADA Pockets and 24 Mini MADA/Clusters There is still considerable overlap between the ATSP and the MADA and Mini MADA /Clusters.

Consequent to the reorganisation of the Tribal Development Department done in January, 1992, the 24 P.O.'s jurisdiction have been so delineated that they cover all the tribal in the State, whether living in the ITDP, MADA, Mini MADA/Clusters or scattered elsewhere in the State. In the year 2012, five new I.T.D.Ps at Dhule, Bhandara, kalmunari, Solapur & Pusad State are established. So now there are 29 I.T.D.Ps (Project Offices ) in Maharashtra

According to the 2001 census, out of the total tribal population of the State, about 49 percent reside in the ITDPs, (i.e. the Scheduled Area and the ATSP), MADA and Mini-MADA clusters, and the remaining 51 percent live outside these areas.

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